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IMMUNOTHERAPY

THE LATEST BIOLOGIC THERAPY FOR CANINE CANCER

CANCER IS NO THE END

Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is a type of cancer treatment designed to boost the body’s natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses materials either made by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function. It is not entirely clear how immunotherapy treats cancer. However, it may work in the following ways:

  • Stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells
  • Stopping cancer from spreading to other parts of the body
  • Helping the immune system work better at destroying cancer cells

There are several types of immunotherapy, including:

  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Non-specific immunotherapies
  • Cancer vaccines
  • Oncolytic virus therapy

WHAT IS WHITE BLOOD CELL

WHITE BLOOD CELL FUNTIONS

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. All white blood cells are produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system. There are five major types of white blood cells:

  • Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils, Monocytes and Basophils
  • B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells
  • T cells:
    • CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T and B cells
    • CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.
    • γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; phagocytosis
    • Regulatory (suppressor) T cells: Returns the functioning of the immune system to normal operation after infection; prevents autoimmunity
  • Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells

WHAT IS CANINE IMMUNOTHERAPY

NK CELL CANCER THERAPY

Immunotherapy is treatment that uses certain parts of a person’s immune system to fight diseases such as cancer. This can be done in a couple of ways:

  • Stimulating your own immune system to work harder or smarter to attack cancer cells
  • Giving you immune system components, such as man-made immune system proteins

Some types of immunotherapy are also sometimes called biologic therapy or biotherapy.

In the last few decades immunotherapy has become an important part of treating some types of cancer. Newer types of immune treatments are now being studied, and they’ll impact how we treat cancer in the future.

Immunotherapy includes treatments that work in different ways. Some boost the body’s immune system in a very general way. Others help train the immune system to attack cancer cells specifically. Immunotherapy works better for some types of cancer than for others. It’s used by itself for some of these cancers, but for others it seems to work better when used with other types of treatment.

Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that were first identified for their ability to kill tumor cells without deliberate immunization or activation. Subsequently, they were also found to be able to kill cells that are infected with certain viruses and to attack preferentially cells that lack expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens. The recent discovery of novel NK receptors and their ligands has uncovered the molecular mechanisms that regulate NK activation and function. Several activating NK cell receptors and costimulatory molecules have been identified that permit these cells to recognize tumors and virus-infected cells. These are modulated by inhibitory receptors that sense the levels of MHC class I on prospective target cells to prevent unwanted destruction of healthy tissues. In vitro and in vivo, their cytotoxic ability can be enhanced by cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-15 and interferon alpha/beta (IFN-alpha/beta). In animal studies, they have been shown to play a critical role in the control of tumor growth and metastasis and to provide innate immunity against infection with certain viruses. Following activation, NK cells release cytokines and chemokines that induce inflammatory responses; modulate monocyte, dendritic cells, and granulocyte growth and differentiation; and influence subsequent adaptive immune responses. The underlining mechanism of discriminating tumor cells and normal cells by NK cells has provided new insights into tumor immunosurveillance and has suggested new strategies for the treatment of human cancer.

WHY CHOOSE CANINE IMMUNOTHERAPY

NK CELL CANCER THERAPY

Most Veterinarians in Singapore are trained in conventional medicine using a combination of radiation, chemo drugs or surgery to manage canine cancer. There are a handful of Veterinarians that will recommend supplements, nutraceutical and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Radiation treatment in Singapore is not available at all. So your pet only has two choices, surgery and chemo drugs. And if the cancer is growing at some places that surgery is not possible, than chemotherapy would be recommended by most Veterinarians.

But this is not entirely true at all. Some therapies such as Ozone Therapy, Hyperbaric Therapy and Immunotherapy are available. Such therapies are not recommended by Veterinarians as it is classified as non-conventional approaches. But there are alot of researches done for human using such therapies, especially Immunotherapy.

However, come cancer growing in your pets are aggressive in nature and they multiply pretty quickly. Adopting the quickest method is crucial.

NK Cell Therapy requires the vet to extract cells (blood) from your pet and it takes three weeks to cultivate them. Upon cultivation, they will be reintroduce to your pet under the supervision of a Veterinarian. Rejection of the NK cells is kept minimum as the cells are grown from the host itself. The cost of this treatment for now is SGD$ 1700.00 and it can be recommended over a 3 to 8 months period. During these three weeks, a very low dose of chemo drugs might be recommended, and it is important to provide a list of supplements for your dogs during this three crucial week. The list of supplements including prices are as followed:

  • Beta Gluan Suppository : SGD$ 289.20 (1 month)
  • Sang Hwang 400 Suppository : SGD$ 521.40 (1 month)
  • JPN Super Anti-oxidant $164.64 (1 month)
  • Immune Pro, SGD$ 174.00 (1 month)
  • Beta Glucan : SGD$ 130.40 (1 month)
  • NK Cell Activator : SGD$ 128.98 x 2 (1 month)

Do take note that the prices varies depending on where you are getting them from. However, the Suppositories are proprietary to a local vet here in Singapore.

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