In memories of all immobile dogs that were not given a second chance

What is Microbiota?

A microbiota is an “ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms” found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals. A microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of their host. The synonymous term microbiome describes either the collective genomes of the microorganisms that reside in an environmental niche or the microorganisms themselves.

The intestinal microbiota is associated closely with health and disease. This Insight explores human developmental biology from a microbial perspective; the influence of diet and the microbiota on metabolism; the microbiota and innate immunity; the microbiota and adaptive immunity; how the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria interact in the gut; and the promise of microbiome-wide association studies for precision medicine.

Scientific research now shows that a prolific and balanced intestinal microbiota is more critical to your health than you ever imagined.

Dr Jean Paul Ly, Senior Veterinarian and Founder of ARC Health Services.

The food we eat plays an essential role in maintaining the diversity and proper functioning of our gut microbiota. When talking about gut microbiota, it could be said that “we are what we eat”, as what we consume also feeds off the hundreds of trillions of bacteria living in our digestive system. For this reason, a varied and balanced diet is essential.

The food we eat also plays an essential role in maintaining the diversity and proper functioning of our gut microbiota. Prebiotics and probiotics are two of the most widely studied elements in the field of gut microbiota. Both have effects that are considered beneficial for the gut microbiota which impacts various functions of the body such as the digestive condition, for this reason, specialists highlight the importance of including both of them in our diet, in order to promote a healthy microbiota.


Alana Redfern, DVM, MSc
Department of Internal MedicineBluePearl Veterinary PartnersNew York CityNew York, USA

Jan Suchodolski, DrVetMed, PhD, AGAF, DACVIM
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA

Albert Jergens, DVM, MS, PhD, DACVIM
Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, Iowa, USA

Gregory J Phillips M.A., Ph.D.
Pfizer award for research excellence in veterinary medicine (2005)

Jan S. Suchodolski, MedVet, DrVetMed, PhD, AGAF, DACVM
Texas A&M Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences

Erika de Papp, DVM, DACVIM
Special interests include gastrointestinal endoscopy, cystoscopy, endocrinology and hematologic disorders.


The intestinal microbiota can be defined as the dynamic collection of microorganisms within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the system of interactions these organisms have with each other and with the host cells. Molecular tools have allowed us to characterize the intestinal microbiota of dogs and cats in more detail. Comparative analyses of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene have provided vast amounts of phylogenetic data from both healthy and diseased animals (Suchodolski et al., 2008aHandl et al., 2011). More recent functional approaches including metagenomics and metabolomics have begun to relate phylogenetic information to physiologic function (Swanson et al., 2011Deusch et al., 2014). The intestinal microbiota is a dynamic system and the composition varies within an individual (i.e., different locations of the GI tract, luminal vs. mucosa-adherent, or different time points; Ritchie et al., 2008Suchodolski et al., 2008a) as well as between individuals (Desai et al., 2009). The composition can also be influenced by diet (Lubbs et al., 2009Swanson et al., 2011Deusch et al., 2014), antibiotics (Suchodolski et al., 2009Igarashi et al., 2014), GI disease (Inness et al., 2007Guard et al., 2015), age (Deusch et al., 2015), and other genetic and environmental factors. The intestinal microbiota has several roles in the maintenance of host health including defending against non-resident intestinal pathogens, aiding in development of a healthy epithelium and immune system, and providing nutrients for the host via fermentative and metabolic activities (Suchodolski, 2011). It is these complex interactions among the microbiota, immune system, and host genetics that influence the balance between health and disease. This review will characterize the healthy intestinal microbiome, summarize methods of characterization, and discuss changes that occur in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal diseases.


The term probiotic is currently used to name ingested microorganisms associated with benefits for humans and animals. The term came into more common use after 1980. The introduction of the concept (but not the term) is generally attributed to Nobel laureate Élie Metchnikoff, who postulated that yogurt-consuming Bulgarian peasants lived longer lives because of this custom. He suggested in 1907 that “the dependence of the intestinal microbeson the food makes it possible to adopt measures to modify the flora in our bodies and to replace the harmful microbes by useful microbes. A significant expansion of the potential market for probiotics has led to higher requirements for scientific substantiation of putative benefits conferred by the microorganisms.

Recently there has been a move away from probiotics from milk cultures as it is rationalised that the normal gut flora in animals are not milk based. Better results are seen when fecal microbiota are administered. Fecal Microbiota transplant or simply poo transplant has been undergoing an explosive revival in the medical community. The concept of treating fecal diseases with fecal matter originated in China millennia ago. Fourth century Chinese medical literature mentions it to treat food poisoning and severe diarrhea. In veterinary medicine it has been used by farm veterinarians for centuries in treating scours and digestive disorders. Fecal microbiota transplant has been known as “transfaunation” and is used to treat ruminating animals, like cows and sheep, by feeding rumen contents of a healthy animal to another individual of the same species in order to colonize its gastrointestinal tract with normal bacteria.[51]

Medical research into microbiome therapies has revealed surprisingly results in the treatment of recurrent chronic gastrointestinal disease such as inflammatory bowel disease and many digestive disorders. Other improved conditions attributed to fecal microbiota transplants include new hair growth in alopecia universalis, depression relief, acne resolution, improved liver values and general immune recovery.

Microbiota transplants has superceeded the previously used milk based probiotics by proving itself to be more effective and normal



It is well known that the innate immune system (white blood cells ) provide the first line of defence to the body and play a major role in recovery. Research has shown that Biological Response Modifier (BRM) or immune modulators act directly on the Innate immune elements like the white blood cells. Superbiolite are very rich in BRM and is a safe, effective immunomodulator acting mainly on the white blood cells. The frequent intake of Superbiolite probiotics reduces the risk of ‘Leaky Gut’ syndrome that plaques thousands of animals on probiotic deficient diets especially highly processed foods The Superbiolite Microbiota with the zeolite, aids in the reduction of toxic gastrointestinal ammonia. This in turn will reduce the ammonia load on the liver, and consequential Urea load on the kidneys. For this reason, Superbiolite is useful in aiding the recovery of liver and kidney diseaes.

Superbiolite can safely be used in most species for

  1. IBD
  2. Diarrhoea
  3. Skin problems
  4. Pancreatitis
  5. Immune deficiency
  6. Allergies
  7. Compromised liver function
  8. Kidney disease
  9. Neoplastic proces
  10. Antibiotic induced gastroenteritis
  11. Bloat